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为什么中国和印度起点相同,现在却领先印度那么多

Why is China so ahead of India even when both started from same league?

为什么中国和印度起点相同,现在却领先印度那么多?

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以下是Quora读者的评论:

Lance Chambers, Travelled extensively and see how politics works

India has a lot of problems. Fractured go nment with every party trying to bribe people to vote for them so we see thing like reservation going crazy — everyone wants to give reservation now to every different caste. This is impossible when there are over 30,000 castes but still some try. You have police that are incompetent and very corrupt like many politicians. After how many years still cannot solve Rafele issue. Some of Indias member of the highest scientific body in the country has two members who believe that the ancient gods were made from cloning and also the they had guided missiles — how can people like this be member of most important science group?

印度有很多问题。每个政党都试图贿赂人民为他们投票,所以我们看到了像预留制一样疯狂的事情——每个人现在都想给不同种姓的人保留席位。这是不可能的,因为印度有超过3万个种姓。警察无能,像许多政客一样附败。多少年过去了,还是不能解决拉斐尔的问题。印度最高科学机构中居然有两名成员相信古代的神是克隆出来的,他们还有导弹——这样的人怎么能成为最重要的科学团体的成员呢?

 

Suchindranath Aiyer

This is because China is ruled and governed by the Chinese in what they consider to be China’s interests in accordance with Chinese policies and laws.

India, however, is ruled in accordance with British interests in accordance with British thinking, policies and laws by British made PANGOLIN* stooges to earn the applause of aliens..

这是因为中国根据本国政策和法律,按照符合中国利益的方式进行治理的。

然而,印度是按照英国的利益,按照英国的思维、政策和法律来统治的。

 

Bharat Nadhani, former Ex Mg Director

It is for faulty policy of Nehruji,

India was blessed by the Britons with :

1.Large Cotton & Jute Industries,

2.Engineering Industries,

3.Ship & aircraft Industries

4.Pharma and Bulk Drugs etc - in comparison to the then world.

And they left the US$ at Rs 1.30 only.

They depreciated our currency from time to time , to cover of global competitiveness - by devauating our currency , it reached at Rs 68.50 in Chidembaeram regime.

Nehru neglected our development and opened the gate of import to China ( once they were Fakir ).

That China attacked India in 1962 and bullied us till 2014.

Trade deficit with China rose only in UPA regime:

这是因为尼赫鲁的错误政策,

因为英国人,印度有了:

1.大型棉花和黄麻工业,

2.工程行业,

3.船舶及飞机工业

4.制药业和原料药等。

英国人离开时,卢比对美金的汇率是1.30:1。

为了掩盖全球竞争力,他们一次次地让我们的货币贬值—通过吞噬我们的货币,现在的汇率达到了68.50:1。

尼赫鲁忽视了我们的发展,打开了中国的进口大门(他们曾经是苦行僧)。

1962年中国攻击印度,一直到2014年都不断欺凌印度。

印度对中国的贸易逆差在团结进步联盟执政时期才出现了上升:

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Now we coming out of these, and India is now exporter of Mobile Phone, however components are being imported. Apple Phones are assembled in India.

The Afgan based Giasuddin Gazi derived Nehru Family always stood along the Chinese.

现在我们走出了这种困境,印度现在是手机出口国,但零部件是进口的。苹果手机在印度进行组装。

以阿富汗为基地的贾苏丁·加齐是尼赫鲁家族的后代,他们一直与中国人站在一起。

译文来源:极速分分时时彩开奖-极速3分快3开奖 http://lleeaj.cn/48742.html 译者:Joyceliu

 

Rakesh Bhatia

The economic history and organization - structure and system at the commencement of economic journey of the two countries is very different. Still China has done well on many scores which, had we followed, might have also brought us in same league. They have level headed approach and responsible leadership

Some well established economic think tanks, including Wall Street Journal, advise caution on taking the data offered by china at its face value. It is believed to overstates its figures by nearly 2-3% and quality of their data is not dependable. There are no means to cross check the authenticity.

Notwithstanding this, their massive economic strength gained by consistent economic growth over 10% in three decades till 2015 cannot be wished away. Detailed analysis on all these aspects will not be feasible in this forum. Economic history books can be consulted by interested persons. Here I will indicate their specialties/strengths/focus which helped them in giving much better performance – in the face of such a large population base.

两国经济开始起步发展时的经济史、组织结构和制度都有很大的不同。尽管如此,中国在很多方面都做得很好,如果我们也这样做的话,可能也能跻身同样的行列。他们有清醒的头脑和负责任的领导

包括《华尔街日报》在内的一些知名经济智库建议,应谨慎看待中国提供的数据的表面价值。据信,他们将数据夸大了近2-3%,数据质量也不可靠。没有办法对真实性进行检验。

尽管如此,在截至2015年的30年里,他们通过持续超过10%的经济增长获得了巨大的经济实力。对这些方面的详细分析无法在本论坛展开。有兴趣的人可以查阅经济史书。在这里,我将指出他们的特长/优势/重点,这有助于他们在面对如此庞大的人口基数时取得更好的成绩。

  1. Centralized control on economic resources enabled them to mobilize whatever surplus was available from any source and utilize a large proportion of economic output on investment. For instance in early 50s they simply took 45% of land from land owners and distributed to farm families. In 78/79 when the economy really shot up, their investment was 25% of GDP (in US it was 16%).
  2. Substantial natural resources – they are self sufficient in all energy forms – coal/petroleum etc. which is eating away majority of India’s forex. Every $ increase gives us sleepless nights.
  3. Massive expenditure on R&D and education – as a result their nation has shifted from exporter of items like agriculture goods, cloths and footwear to Computers, pharma products and automobiles.
  4. They didn’t shy away from foreign trade. They are the largest exporter of goods and second largest Importer of goods. They import 64% of manufacturing goods and 21% of mining and fuel products but export 94% of manufacturing goods…implying massive value additions and productive utilization of labour and manufacturing facilities. India was never that focused.
  5. 对经济资源的集中控制使它们能够调动任何来源的任何盈余,并将大部分经济产出用于投资。例如,在50年代早期,他们从土地所有者手中夺走45%的土地,然后分配给农民家庭。在78/79年经济真正腾飞的时候,他们的投资占GDP的25%(美国是16%)。
  6. 丰富的自然资源——它们的所有能源都自给自足——煤炭/石油等正在消耗印度大部分的外汇。每增加一美元都会让我们彻夜难眠。

      3.大量的研发和教育支出——他们从农产品、服装和鞋类等产品的出口国变身成了电脑、制药产品和汽车的出口国。

  1. 他们不回避对外贸易。他们是最大的货物出口国和第二大货物进口国。他们进口64%的制造业产品和21%的矿业和燃料产品,但出口94%的制造业产品……这意味着巨大的增值、劳动力和制造业设施的生产性利用。印度从未如此重视。
  2. Their decision making is nimble footed. Over the plans, they have moved between two principle policies – promoting economic growth and reduction of inequality with lightening speed. They see a problem and immediately take action to alter the system. Over the plans the emphasis have shifted from Agriculture to Industry, light to heavy industry to correct imbalance among sectors in relative growths.
  3. When they see something is not working, they change it. After first 2/3 plans they gave up Russian model of growth which was not giving results. In 80s they freed agriculture from central planning. In 90s restructured industrial sector, invited foreign investors, liberalized banking and started real capital market.
  4. They know how to deal with surplus labour. Farm labour and low skill industrial labour, which got surplus due to lack of opportunities on farms and development of automation was absorbed in small scale, low skill units in rural areas to make agriculture machinery and components for Urban Industries. In the very early stages they invested heavily in developing infrastructure for agriculture, building irrigation and water works and power which utilized surplus labour force.
  5. 他们的决策速度很快。在这些计划中,他们在两大原则政策之间摇摆——促进经济增长和以闪电般的速度减少不平等。他们发现问题,立即采取行动改变系统。在这些计划中,重点已从农业转向工业,从轻工业转向重工业,以纠正各部门之间相对增长的不平衡。
  6. 当他们看到某些事情没有效果时,他们就会调整。在最初的2/3的计划之后,他们放弃了没有成效的俄罗斯增长模式。80年代,他们将农业从中央计划经济中解放出来。90年代,工业部门进行了重组,引进了外国投资者,银行自由化,并建立了实体资本市场。
  7. 他们知道如何利用过剩的劳动力。农业劳动力和低技能的工业劳动力,由于缺乏在农场的机会和自动化的发展而过剩,被农村地区的小规模、低技能的单位吸收,为城市工业制造农业机械和零部件。在早期阶段,他们投入大量资金发展农业基础设施,修建灌溉和水利设施,并利用剩余劳动力发电。
  8. They have exploited economies of scale at every level. By converting/merging small units into cooperative and to communes, they brought efficiencies and increased production and yielded over 4% growth, on average, in agriculture through most of the period.
  9. They have also exploited comparative advantage across regions by massive development of transport and communication, very early on, in late 1940s, which increased flow of labour, investment and technology across regions.
  10. 他们在各个层面利用了规模经济。通过将小单位转换/合并为合作社和公社,提高了效率,增加了产量,在此期间的大部分时间里,农业平均增长超过4%。
  11. 他们早在1940年代末就通过大规模发展运输和通讯利用了各区域间的相对优势,从而增加了各区域间的劳动力、投资和技术流动。

 

Rajeev Bhatnagar, History enthusiast.

There are several reasons for China being ahead of us. You will not find them in textbooks, and reading them will be painful, but here are some important ones:

(i) China had early start:

China began "liberalization" of its economy about 13 years before us.

(ii) Voluntary choice vs. Forced on a sick economy:

China began liberalization by choosing that path - it was voluntary & deliberate choice. India did not opt for liberalization but was forced into it by IMF & Work bank in 1991, when we had almost nil foreign exchange to pay for imports like oil. Thus we waited for our economy to become extremely sick before starting.

So our starting point was a sick economy and politically half-hearted effort at that.

(iv) China's Labour is has higher productivity:

Chinese labour has higher productivity compared to Indian.

中国走在我们前头的原因有几个。你在课本上是读不到的,这里列出一些重要的:

(一)中国起步早:

中国经济的“自由化”比我们早了大约13年

(二)在病态经济下的自愿选择与被迫选择:

中国通过选择这条道路开始了自由化—这是自愿和深思熟虑的选择。印度没有选择自由化,而是在1991年被国际货币基金组织和工作银行强迫实行自由化,当时我们几乎没有外汇来支付石油等进口商品。因此,我们在开始之初经济就出现了严重的问题。

(四)中国的劳动生产率较高:

中国的劳动生产率高于印度。

 

Malay Mishra

China is ahead of India(economically) basically because of few reasons mentioned below in no order of priority.

2.They adapted reforms earlier

3.They controlled population to their benefit - this is debatable

4.They created infrastructure

6.They don’t care for what others do they care for only what they have to do

8.They value their culture a lot and don’t sit silent when others attack their culture

中国在经济上领先印度,基本上是因为下面提到的几个原因,排名不分先后。

他们更早地进行了改革

他们为了自己的利益控制人口——这是有争议的

他们打造了发达的基础设施

他们不在乎别人做什么,他们只在乎自己必须做什么

他们非常重视自己的文化,当别人攻击他们的文化时,他们不会保持沉默

 

Umesh Kumar Rai, BE from Army Institute of Technology (2007)

Until Late 70s, China and India were on the same league. poverty was similar in both countries. But post early 80s, China started economic reforms which we didn’t. And that fuled Chinese economic growth towards double digit growth for the next 3 decades. Its not that India didn’t grow during this time. But the difference in the growth rate of both countries was dramaticaly different because of which China is so ahead today compared to India.

在70年代末前,中国和印度一直处于同一水平。两国的贫困情况相似。但80年代初,中国开始了经济改革,而我们没有。这使得中国经济在接下来的30年实现了两位数的增长速度。我不是说印度在这个期间没有增长。但这两个国家在增长率上的差异一个天上一个地下,所以中国今天领先了这么多。

 

Pradip Gangopadhyay, Seeker of Truth

China has raced ahead of India since 1980 because of adoption of an export led model copied from Japan, Singapore and Taiwan. India’s domestic consumption led model is slow but more sustainable. India should now grow faster than China for a very long time.

自1980年以来,由于采用了从日本、新加坡和台湾复制的出口导向型模式,中国一直领先于印度。印度国内消费的主导模式是缓慢的,但更具持续性。在很长一段时间内,印度的增长速度应该会比中国快。

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